[2] Gov. Information and translations of New Frontier in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. In the census reports it is treated as the margin of that settlement which has a density of two or more to the square mile. [44] On the tide of the Father of Waters, North and South met and mingled into a nation. It will become all of one thing or all of the other.” Nothing works for nationalism like intercourse within the nation. The open plains were ideal for grazing huge herds, and the completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869 made it possible to ship the cattle to market in large and profitable numbers. The effect of the Indian frontier as a consolidating agent in our history is important. Since the days when the fleet of Columbus sailed into the waters of the New World, America has been another name for opportunity, and the people of the United States have taken their tone from the incessant expansion which has not only been open but has even been forced upon them. In the discussion of its extent, its westward movement, etc., it can not, therefore, any longer have a place in the census reports.” This brief official statement marks the closing of a great historic movement. 23. The army crossed the frontier in the middle of the night. American frontier, in United States history, the advancing border that marked those lands that had been settled by Europeans. From the close of the seventeenth century various intercolonial congresses have been called to treat with Indians and establish common measures of defense. Turner, Character and Influence of the Indian Trade in Wisconsin (Johns Hopkins University Studies, Series IX), pp. The true point of view in the history of this nation is not the Atlantic coast, it is the great West. They had to deal with hot summers and ice-cold winters, infestations of grasshoppers, prairie fires, and possible confrontations with Native Americans. Tucson, Tombstone, Denver, Central City, and Leadville were all, at one time, mining towns. [5] The King attempted to arrest the advance by his proclamation of 1763,[6] forbidding settlements beyond the sources of the rivers flowing into the Atlantic; but in vain. The rise of democracy as an effective force in the nation came in with western preponderance under Jackson and William Henry Harrison, and it meant the triumph of the frontier—with all of its good and with all of its evil elements. * * * Let no man at the East quiet himself and dream of liberty, whatever may become of the West. ), I, p. 473. Excepting the fisherman, each type of industry was on the march toward the West, impelled by an irresistible attraction. Long before the pioneer farmer appeared on the scene, primitive Indian life had passed away. Are You Thinking of a Career in Secondary Schools? I have to thank the Secretary of the Society, Mr. Reuben G. Thwaites, for securing valuable material for my use in the preparation of the paper. [15] Minnesota and Wisconsin still exhibited frontier conditions,[16] but the distinctive frontier of the period is found in California, where the gold discoveries had sent a sudden tide of adventurous miners, and in Oregon, and the settlements in Utah. With Europe temporarily stable, energy was directed outward and fortunes and reputations were sought in the colonies. When the Oregon question was under debate, in 1824, Smyth, of Virginia, would draw an unchangeable line for the limits of the United States at the outer limit of two tiers of States beyond the Mississippi, complaining that the seaboard States were being drained of the flower of their population by the bringing of too much land into market. Thus American development has exhibited not merely advance along a single line, but a return to primitive conditions on a continually advancing frontier line, and a new development for that area. Western frontier life has inspired works in the opera, ballet, and musical theater, and was long a staple of movies that became popular throughout the world. Compare Barrows, United States of Yesterday and To-morrow; Shinn, Mining Camps; and Bancroft, Popular Tribunals. Up to our own day American history has been in a large degree the history of the colonization of the Great West. All along the coast from Maine to Georgia the Indian trade opened up the river courses. The United States, was influenced by these developments. At max fame, this quest can be flagged after completing just … The works of travelers along each frontier from colonial days onward describe certain common traits, and these traits have, while softening down, still persisted as survivals in the place of their origin, even when a higher social organization succeeded. XV, 144; Logan, History of Upper South Carolina. The Great Plains remained unsettled and the United States turned to the task with a deliberate sense of itself that took the form of a political purpose and program articulated by the central government and different from the country's previous pioneering efforts. In another way the advance of the frontier decreased our dependence on England. The result was the systematic reduction, the demoralization and decimation, of the Native American peoples, in open warfare or in massacres, like the one near Sand Creek, Col., in 1864. This gives him bone and muscle, sir, and preserves his republican principles pure and uncontaminated. [18] He may see how the mining experience in the lead regions of Wisconsin, Illinois, and Iowa was applied to the mining laws of the Rockies,[19] and how our Indian policy has been a series of experimentations on successive frontiers. Having now roughly outlined the various kinds of frontiers, and their modes of advance, chiefly from the point of view of the frontier itself, we may next inquire what were the influences on the East and on the Old World. These values were rooted in the day-to-day living conditions. I have refrained from dwelling on the lawless characteristics of the frontier, because they are sufficiently well known. The vast expanses of the Great Plains and the intermontane region, between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, were the last frontier, and the area was settled between 1850 and 1890. [7] When the first census was taken in 1790, the continuous settled area was bounded by a line which ran near the coast of Maine, and included New England except a portion of Vermont and New Hampshire, New York along the Hudson and up the Mohawk about Schenectady, eastern and southern Pennsylvania, Virginia well across the Shenandoah Valley, and the Carolinas and eastern Georgia. Governor Glenn, of South Carolina, writes in the middle of the eighteenth century: “Our trade with New York and Philadelphia was of this sort, draining us of all the little money and bills we could gather from other places for their bread, flour, beer, hams, bacon, and other things of their produce, all which, except beer, our new townships begin to supply us with, which are settled with very industrious and thriving Germans. Men who were poor prospectors one day became fabulously rich the next. In this advance, the frontier is the outer edge of the wave—the meeting point between savagery and civilization. The frontier region of the time lay along the Great Lakes, where Astor’s American Fur Company operated in the Indian trade,[10] and beyond the Mississippi, where Indian traders extended their activity even to the Rocky Mountains; Florida also furnished frontier conditions. Said Calhoun in 1817, “We are great, and rapidly—I was about to say fearfully—growing!”[1] So saying, he touched the distinguishing feature of American life. In the crucible of the frontier the immigrants were Americanized, liberated, and fused into a mixed race, English in neither nationality or characteristics. A similar study might be made for the salt springs of the United States. Bancroft (1860 ed. It admired a tough lawman but was suspicious of government. Frontier: located at or near a border. They also had to contend with ranchers, whose herds and livelihoods were threatened when barbed wire put an end to the open range. The efficient frontier is curved because there is a diminishing marginal return to risk. We shall consider the whole frontier belt, including the Indian country and the outer margin of the “settled area” of the census reports. Boom and bust on the mining frontier.The pattern was the same almost everywhere. The Native Americans resisted and the settlers and the government fought back. Their houses were built of sod, blocks of compacted soil cut out of the prairie. But the people who did it, the men and women who went out to settle the last frontier, lived lives that would decisively shape the American character. The English, on the contrary, are no sooner in possession of a place than the game is driven away. Each unit of risk added to a portfolio gains a smaller and smaller amount of return. The frontier took the settler with his European dress and manner and "stripped off the garments of civilization" The frontier was initially too strong for the man; eventually the man was able to transform the wilderness. 27. This settled area had surrounded Indian areas, and the management of these tribes became an object of political concern. The western territories of the United States were settled in several stages. Taking flocks or furs and ginseng root, the early settlers sent their pack trains after seeding time each year to the coast. Thus Wisconsin, now developing manufacture, is a State with varied agricultural interests. Movement has been its dominant fact, and, unless this training has no effect upon a people, the American energy will continually demand a wider field for its exercise. 39. Cattle ranching was a tough business that gave the West its cowboys. After pioneers had settled lands from the Appalachians to the Mississippi and the Old Northwest territory around the Great Lakes, they headed for the Far West, chiefly California and Oregon. The works of travelers along each frontier from colonial days onward describe certain common traits, and these traits have, while softening down, still persisted as survivals in the place of their origin, even when a higher social organization succeeded. 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